4: Energy & Atmosphere
1. What are the major consumers of energy in a building?
AC, light, power equipments, Vent. fans
2. What are components that add to heat gain in a building?
Glass, wall, lights power equipment, occupants
3. Which consultant is responsible for energy efficiency?
All (Arch., MEP, owner etc.)
4. Which is ideal orientation for building in terms of energy efficiency?
Longest space facing north south
5. What are the 3 properties of glass considered while selecting glazing?
U, Shading co-efficient, VLT
6. What are the units of U value? And is higher / lower better?
Btu/hr/ft2/0F or W/m2/ 0K. Lower is better.
7. What do SC and SHGC stand for? What is the conversion factor?
SC: Shading co-efficient & SHGC: Solar heat gain co efficient
8. What are the options for improving wall U-value?
Brick wall with insulation, brick wall with air cavity, Hollow blocks, fly ash bricks, AAC blocks
9. What are the types of roof insulation?
Over deck, under deck, insulation sandwiched
10. What are AAC blocks and which component is “recycled content”?
Autoclaved Aerated Concrete blocks (with fly ash, cement, lime, Al powder, water), fly ash
11. Which standard is followed for energy calculation / simulation?
ASHRAE 90.1. or ECBC whichever is more stringent
12. Name any 3 methods to improve efficiency of AC system?
Water cooled chiller, High COP, VFD, economiser, heat recovery wheels, BMS
13. What is LPD?
Light power density
14. Mention any 3 ways to improve efficiency of lighting systems?
Natural lighting, Day light sensor, Occupancy sensor, individual control
15. What is BMS?
Building management System
16. What are the benefits of commissioning?
Cross checking all are as per documents & design. To ensure equipments are designed, installed & calibrated as intend
17. What is fundamental commissioning?
Agent to review design intent
Incorporate commissioning requirement in the documents
Develop commissioning plan
• Verify installation
• Functional performance
• Training, operation & maintenance documentation
• Commissioning report
Basically a plan, checking the equipments designed & commissioned properly. Development and implement a commissioning plan.
18. Can a member of the project team do fundamental commissioning?
Yes if less than 50000sqft
19. Which standards must be met to achieve “minimum energy performance” prerequisite?
20. What does CFC, HCFC, HFC, ODP and GWP stand for?
Chloro Fluoro Carbon, Hydro Chloro Fluoro Carbon, Hydro Fluoro Carbon, Ozone Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential
21. What is the intent of eliminating the use of CFC in HVAC & R systems?
Prevent ozone depletion & global warming
22. How many points are available for energy efficiency in LEED NC Rating?
23. Which are the 2 methods to prove compliance with ASHRAE / ECBC?
Prescriptive & whole building performance (simulation)
24. Which data is required to do energy modelling?
All data – Arch. MEP services, landscape, glazing, etc.
25. What are examples of Renewable energy?
Tidal, Wind. Solar, Hydro, biogas
26. What are the requirements for energy produced to be claimed under EAC2, renewable energy?
Produced at site (2.5% 5% & 7.5%)
27. % of renewable energy is calculated in comparison to…
Total energy consumed in the building
28. Who performs additional commissioning?
29. What stage is commissioning agent hired and how long is his role in project?
Initial Stage of construction & up to one year after occupancy
30. Which protocol outlines requirements for preventing ozone depletion
31. What are requirements of “measurement & verification” credit?
IPMVP (International Performance Measurement & Verification Protocol) document to be verified & to be checked for 1 year after occupancy
Third party will do measurement & verification during occupancy.
32. What is Green Power?
Producing renewable energy off site
33. How much of building energy load should be green power?
34. What are thermal breaks?
Air gap between windows to reduce the heat conduction act as insulation is thermal break
35. What are VFD’s, Heat Recovery Wheels & Economizers?
Variable Frequency Drive : Give the A/c as per the requirement/ person so energy reduced
Heat Recovery wheel: for pre cooling the fresh air using waste exhaust air which is at comparatively lower temperature (for energy conservation)
Economizers : Supply fresh air when required (occupant)
36. What is additional commissioning ?
• 3rd party to review design intent
• Contractor submittal verification
• Re commissioning management plan
• Post occupancy review
Chapter 5: Materials & Resources
1. What are the 5 materials (at a minimum) that a building occupant should have the appropriate bin to dispose off, in a green building?
Paper, card board, metal, glass, plastics
2. Is “Storage & Collection of Recyclables” for during construction or post occupancy?
3. In addition to bins, what else needs to be incorporated in the design of the building?
Space to earmarked. Centralised space to located.
4. Name any 3 building elements that categorize as Shell, Non Shell and Structure?
Shell- Exterior wall, roof, framing
Non shell-windows, doors, false ceiling , wooden flooring
Structure-column, beam, basement wall, roof deck, floor deck, foundation
5. What is the intent of Building Reuse credit?
Extent the life of the existing building & reduce construction waste
6. Are windows shell or non shell?
7. What is the goal of Construction waste management?
Avoid the construction lead to landfill, reduce the waste, recycle it properly
8. Name any 5 materials that would be considered construction waste?
Brick, glass, cement bags, steal,
9. Is sand a construction waste?
10. How is construction waste measured and what is is the % to be achieved for 1 & 2 points?
For 50% – 1 point & 75% – 2 and above 95% exemplary 1 point
11. Name 3 examples of Resource Reuse?
Brick, furniture’s, Aeroplane tyre, wing,
12. How the value of resource reuse calculated and what is is it compared to for achieving points?
The price of the actual (new item) – 5% of building material cost – 1 & 10% -2
13. What are the types of recycled content? Give some examples
Post consumer – bottle-glass, paper, plastics
Post industrial – Fly ash, steel, gypsum
14. What is the average recycled content % of steel and glass?
Steel – 20-25%
Glass – 10-15%
15. What is the intent of local / regional materials credit?
Encourage local economy, reduce transportation, pollution.
16. What is allowable distance for a material to be “local”
500 miles (800 km)
17. Define manufacture and extraction?
Final assembling place is Manufacture
Raw material extraction – initial – Extraction
18. From where is the radius for local materials calculated?
19. How many years is the harvesting cycle considered as “rapidly renewable”?
Less than 10 years
20. Some examples of rapidly renewable?
Bamboo, MDF (Medium Density Fibre board), [Eucalyptous, cotton, straw, wool]
21. What does FSC stand for?
Forest Stewardship Council
22. How is FSC wood better than un-certified wood?
The wood is not better than normal wood. The forest is well managed.
23. What certificate is required for credit compliance for FSC wood?
Chain of custody.
24. Can a material be counted in Building and Resource reuse?
25. Can a material be taken in rapidly renewable and certified wood credits?
Chapter 6: Indoor Environmental Quality
1. What standard is followed for Minimum Indoor Environmental Ventilation requirements?
2. What are the standards outlined in ASHRAE 62.1?
3. What is CFM?
Cubit Feet per Minute
4. Which locations are inappropriate for fresh air intakes?
Not near to exhaust areas, ETS, parking garage, cooling tower
5. What is ETS? What is the intent of this credit?
Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Avoid the exposure of ETS to occupants/non-smokers.
6. What are the 2 options for meeting ETS requirements?
Declare building as No Smoking
Provide dedicated smoking area with proper ventilation (to be maintained under –ive pressure)
7. What is the benefit of monitoring CO2 in a space?
Increase the fresh air
8. What is best location for CO2 sensors in terms of spaces and height?
From floor between 3 ft 6 ft
9. What % better than ASHRAE should be achieved to get credits and for what % of spaces?
30% for 90% spaces
10. What is the benefit of a Construction IAQ Plan?
Well being of construction workers / occupants
Protection of equipments
11. Which standard is used for Construction IAQ?
SMACNA- Sheet Metal & Air conditioning Contractors National Association
12. What is MERV and where is it used?
Minimum Efficiency reporting Value – this is filter media used in AHU
13. What is Building Flush Out and when is it done?
Before occupation, by natural fresh air for 2 weeks Ac operation & replace the MERV 8
14. What is the benefit of using low VOC materials?
Prevent exposure of chemical toxicants, irritation
15. What does VOC stand for?
Volatile Organic Compound
16. Name the 4 categories of low VOC materials required by LEED?
Adhesives, Sealants & primer, Paints & coating, Carpet
17. Name 4 adhesives & sealants in a building?
Carpet adhesive, tile adhesive, AC Insulation adhesive, Architectural sealants, Fire sealants
18. Which standard is followed for carpets and carpet adhesives?
Carpet & Rug Institute, Green label plus
19. Which resin is not allowed in Wood & Agrifiber products? Mention any other resin?
Urea formaldehyde – not allowed. Use phenol formaldehyde
20. What is the intent of the “indoor chemical & pollutant source control” credit?
Avoid exposure of building occupants to hazardous, chemical pollutants & dusts
21. What types of rooms require independent ventilation?
Chemical, copier, ETS,
22. To achieve the credit, what is the MERV value credit?
23. What are the advantages of providing “Controllability of systems”?
Save energy. Facilitates individual thermal & lighting controllability
24. What are the standards for operable windows?
10 ft either side of the window and 20 ft inside the window.
25. Which areas are to provide the controllability?
Regularly occupied areas
26. Example of controllability of systems; lighting?
BMS . Automatic sensors , thermostat,
27. Which standard is followed for Thermal comfort credit?
28. What are the focus areas of ASHRAE 55?
Thermal comfort : Temperature & Humidity control
29. When must the verification survey be conducted?
30. What is the minimum % of occupants should satisfied with thermal conditions, below which corrective action needs to be taken?
31. What does daylight factor depend on?
VLT, Amount of glass in comparison to floor area.
32. What is the benefit of natural daylight?
Energy saving & conservation
33. What % of space should meet minimum daylight requirements?
75% of regularly occupied area
34. What is the height between which views are possible through glazing?
2’6” to 7’6”
35. What is the % of spaces to have indoor – outdoor connection
Chapter 7: Innovation & Design
1. What topics are covered in innovation & design chapter?
Innovative performance in Green Building categories not specifically addressed by LEED also it provides one point if IGBC AP is involved
2. What is “Innovation” in a green building rating system?
Doing something new which were not related to any of the credit system
3. Mention any 3 innovations in a green building?
Green education, Green house keeping, Car pooling.
4. Define exemplary performance?
Meeting more than specified in the credit limit
5. Mention any 3 credits which could qualify for exemplary performance?
100% AC make up water from Treated water, reducing or salvage more than 95% construction waste, more than 50%(95%) roof garden , more than 10% (15%) recycle content. More than 20% regional material, 95% to 100 % FSC wood , 95% lighting energy reduction by day light views
6. At a minimum, who should be a LEED AP to achieve the point in LEED rating system?
Consultant, architect, Design team member
Chapter 8: Green Building Codes
1. What is covered in NBC Part 10, Section1, and Chapter 4?
Control of erosion & sedimentation control
2. What does ECBC stand for?
Energy conservation building code
3. Who developed the ECBC? Is it mandatory?
BEE – Bureau of Energy Efficiency. Not mandatory
4. What are the building systems covered under ECBC?
Ac, Lighting, Envelope, hot water system,
5. To which projects can ECBC be applied?
Moe than 500kW connected load or 600kva contract demand or 1000 sq.mtr Ac space
6. What are 2 approaches for Energy Conservation?
Prescriptive & whole building performance (simulation)
7. What is maximum glazed area (% of gross wall area) in prescriptive approach?
8. What are the 5 climate zones in India per ECBC?
Hot dry, warm humid, Composite, temperate, cold
9. What does ASHRAE stand for?
Americal seceity of heating, refrigeration & air-conditioning Engineers.
10. Which topics are covered in ASHRAE 90.1, which are the applicable credits?
Energy , optimizing energy performance
11. Which topics are covered in ASHRAE 62.1, which are the applicable credits?
Indoor environment quality
12. What is SMACNA? Which credit does it apply to?
Sheet Metal & Air conditioning Contractors National Association & Construction IAQ credit
13. What is ASHRAE 55 and what topics are covered?
Thermal comfort : Temperature & humidity control
14. What is CRI & Green Label certification?
Carpet & rug institute –are the certifying authority
Green Label plus requirements –Certificate for carpet
1. What are materials with recycled content?
Materials which have a certain amount of waste product or recycled product included in the manufacturing process.
2. Work from home encourages what culture?
Mixed use buildings with reduced travel (hence fuel & pollution) from travel
3. Why do walls in a building need to be insulated?
Reduce heat transfer / gain through conduction
4. Which of the following are appropriate sites?
Should not be farmland, endangered species, 100fet of wetland & parkland
5. What is the broad objective of using low VOC?
Reduced exposure of occupants to toxic chemicals resulting in respiratory and discomfort
6. What does Evapo-transpiration refer to?
` Evapo transpiration is loss of water by plants due to evaporation and transpiration
7. What principle does composite toilet work?
Use of bacteria to treated organic waste and it can be reused as compost. Aerobic, no chemicals
8. How do VFD’s assist in green buildings?
Variable Frequency Drives regulate air conditioning per requirement / occupancy and hence reduce energy consumption
9. Why are lighter shades of paint preferred?
Reflect away heat rather than conducting, reduced heat island effect
10. What does recycling construction debris encourage?
Prevents waste being sent to landfill. Also reduces waste and encourages onsite reuse
11. What is the intent of roof garden?
Roof garden reduces heat island effect and also reduces conductive heat gain by increasing insulating property of roof
12. When should fresh air be pumped into the space?
When co2 levels are raised due to human occupancy
13. What are the ideal location of CO2 sensors
3’-6” above floor : breathing zone
14. What is silt fencing?
Silt fence helps to prevents erosion & sedimentation by trapping silt from running water
15. What are Green Woods?
Green wood can be FSC certified or rapidly renewable
16. Trade off in LPD is accepted when?
Whole building method, where one space can have higher LPD and one less, as long as total LPD is below ASHRAE
17. RWH calculations should be according to which parameters?
Rainfall, site imperviousness
18. What are factors determining IAQ?
Fresh air, VOC & contaminants, & daylight
19. What is the benefit of providing Individual controls to occupants?
Adjust personal climate, savings in energy
20. CFL is good replacement for?
Incandescent bulbs, halogens
21. What causes SBS?
Sick Building Syndrome – poor indoor environment quality and inadequate fresh air
22. Waterless urinals help in what?
Reduces water used for sewage conveyance
23. U Value or SHGC is important for a building in tropical climate should be?
Both are important.
24. What are Non shell elements?
Non Shell: doors, partitions, flooring, windows
25. What causes failure in day-lighting?
Inadequate glare control
26. Less VOC can cause what difference to occupants?
Better air quality, less VOC and toxins which result in respiratory issues
27. Runoff co-efficient for asphalt is low or high?
28. What are stabilization using structural controls?
Using structural controls to prevent sedimentation: silt fence, earth dikes, sediment basin, sediment traps
29. What are Xeriscapes and what are the benefits?
Landscape using minimum plants, cacti and hard materials, to reduce water consumption for landscape
30. RBTS best to treat which water?
Reed Bed Treatment System for waste water
31. Objective for purchasing products with recycled content?
Encourage recycling and use of recycled materials in manufacture process, reduce demand on virgin materials
32. What is the percentage of recycled content in steel?
20 – 25 % for steel
33. Building orientation is crucial why?
Reduced heat gain by longer axis facing north south
34. Examples of Post industrial recycled content?
Fly ash, steel
35. Maximum post development storm water run-off should be?
Less than pre development run off
36. Broad intent to design with daylight and view?
Maximize indoor outdoor connection and reduce operation of artificial lights by using natural daylight
37. Installing moisture sensors in landscapes helps in?
Supplying water for landscape only when required (soil becoming dry)
38. What happens to the water flow in faucet when pressure is decreased?
Water flow is decreased
39. Economizers work in what principles?
Supplying fresh air only when rooms are occupied, co2 sensors
40. If the building is predominantly factory with other offices spaces attached to it what rating can we opt?
Green factories IGBC
41. What does the project team do when there is a challenge in the interpretation of a credit or prerequisite?
42. What does the project team do when they have failed in getting a particular credit and they are confident in getting?
43. Could certification be achieved if the project gets maximum credits, except for one perquisite?
No, all pre reqs should be achieved
44. Who reviews the appeal?
Different Assessor, not the one who reviewed first time
45. How much time does IGBC takes for 1st Review?
46. What is the interval in which the pre-certified project should be updated with IGBC
47. Green roof is installed to?
Roof garden reduces heat island effect and also reduces conductive heat gain by increasing insulating property of roof
48. Quantity of water required per head in a office building (as per NBC)
45 litres / person / day
49. Quantity of water required per head for domestic and non domestic usage (as per NBC)?
135 litres / person / day
50. Can a project apply for platinum rating if its gold rating in pre-certified
51. Why we have to study the soil condition before landscape?
Appropriate plants species and irrigation systems
52. How does commissioning help?
Ensures proper installation and functioning per design, identifies any installation mistakes
53. CFC reduction/elimination in refrigerants helps in what?
Reduce ozone depletion
54. What is the benefit of construction waste management?
Prevent waste going to landfill
55. If there is substantial wood requirement in a building how to make it green?
FSC wood, rapidly renewable wood or MDF (recycled content)
56. What is the ASHRAE standard for ventilation?
57. What does ASHRAE 55 speak about?
Thermal comfort: temperature and humidity
58. Where should the location of fresh air intakes be in a building?
Away from exhausts, smoking areas, and no pollutant source
59. What happens if we increase the ventilation in a building more than the ECBC standards?
Better IAQ (more fresh air) but increase in energy consumption
60. Which agency concern about construction IAQ management plan?
SMACNA, should be done by contractor and documented by taking photos
61. What does ENVIS concern about?
ENVIS: wet lands
62. Which is a brown field development?
Contaminated site, chemical or physical, landfill etc
63. What is the intent in developing in a previously developed site?
Reduce development of green fields and use sites within developed area rather than away from city
64. ECBC is been devised by
ECBC was devised by Bureau of Energy Efficiency BEE
65. What happens if the local control regulations are stringent than the ECBC or ASHRAE standards..
Follow whichever is MOST stringent
66. ECBC has divided Indian into how many climate zones?
5 climate zone: Hot Dry, Warm Humid, Composite, Temperate, Cold
67. What does SRI property in a material define?
SRI is solar Reflectance Index, how much solar radiation is reflected
68. Oil grit separators are installed to:
To filter oil in storm water run-off
69. The Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is applicable to buildings or building complexes that have a connected load
500 kW or greater
70. If a credit point has been denied for a project and the project team feels they have complied with the credit requirement, the project team
Can appeal for review of the credit
71. Perform soil and climate analysis to determine the species of plants which will adapt best
Reduce water requirement for landscaping